The number of drink tea, the Russians are second only to Chinese. Citizens of the USA, Brazil and Germany, on the contrary, prefer coffee. If you believe a series of studies, it is not only the historical background and the difference in mentality — a choice between coffee and tea in the genes.
For an addiction to caffeine and because of its effects on the body to respond to certain genetic variations, say researchers from Harvard University (USA). Just eight of them. The first two mutations in the genes CYP1A2 and AHR — discovered in 2011, when data analysis 47 thousand people showed that their carriers use a day to 40 micrograms of caffeine more than other people.
Three years later, the same group of scientists has discovered six new genes that may be related to caffeine addiction. This time the researchers interviewed 120 thousand respondents, and then analyzed their DNA. It turned out that four new coffee gene were associated with how the body breaks down caffeine and reacts to it. Another two genes present in the DNA of coffee and had no direct relation to the bracing beverage: they regulate cholesterol and blood sugar.
Love for coffee is also determined by mutations in the genes of the receptors of bitter taste, confident of British and Australian scientists, who studied the data of 438 thousand people. Among those who drank more than four cups of coffee a day, is dominated by people with high sensitivity to caffeine. While they do not taste of quinine and some other bitter substances that do not like tea, and on average drink less alcohol than those with no such mutations. People with high sensitivity to quinine, on the contrary, prefer tea and dislike coffee.
The speed of digestion of caffeine and the reaction to it can also depend on the sex of the person, according to scientists from the University of Barcelona. For several days they drink coffee 688 volunteers: 238 men and 450 women. Ten, 20 and 30 minutes after a Cup of invigorating drink, the researchers measured the levels of caffeine in the body of the subjects. It turned out that its effect started to be felt by volunteers within ten minutes after drinking coffee, and the highest concentrations of this substance reached in about half an hour. While men caffeine were faster and produced greater effect, than at women.
Prolonged consumption of coffee in different ways affects health across genders. According to a study of Swedish physicians, three cups of coffee a day can significantly reduce breast size in women. Particularly susceptible to this effect of the carriers of mutations in the gene CYP1A2 — the same one that causes addiction to bracing drink. According to scientists, the breast volume reduced due to the fact that caffeine can affect the production of female sex hormones — estrogens.
For men, three cups of coffee a day, on the contrary, are positive, prevent the development of erectile dysfunction. As found by researchers from the University of Texas at Houston (USA), men consuming daily from 85 to 303 micrograms of caffeine (equivalent to three cups of coffee), about 40 percent less likely to complain of problems with potency than those who do not drink coffee. The only group of men on whom caffeine has no improving impact — diabetics.
According to the researchers, caffeine affects the relaxation of smooth muscles gelatinoid and cavernous arteries of the penis, which improves blood flow and allows men to remain long in fighting form.
Tea against all diseases
But tea is equally valid for all people, regardless of gender. While studies proving its beneficial effects on the body, many times more than similar work about the coffee.
In particular, it is known that green tea as an effective tool for cancer prevention. According to the American oncologists, green tea extract, Polyphenon E, inhibits the growth of malignant tumors, and one Cup of this hot drink a day lowers the risk of developing glaucoma, one of the main causes a complete loss of vision. Scientists explain the beneficial effects of tea contained flavonoids, which dilate blood vessels, providing the eye with oxygen and nutrients.
In addition, according to the findings of Australian scientists, one Cup of tea a day (no matter what black or green) reduce the risk of coronary heart disease, stroke and peripheral artery disease. And the black tea helps lose weight and improves the intestinal flora, so that the active substances contained in it stimulates the growth of certain beneficial bacteria and inhibit the microbes living in the gut of obese people and animals. But the tea really helped, it is better to stop Smoking and alcoholic drinks, scientists warn. They nullify the benefits of consuming this drink.